Mary Douglas, in Purity and Danger describes dirt as "that which has no place." As we know it, dirt is essentially disorder. Dirt offends against order. Eliminating it is not a negative moment, but a positive effort to organise the environment. Rituals of purity and impurity create unity in experience. (Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger) (cf formless)

"Dirtiness of any kind seems to us incompatible with civilization." (Freud, Civilization and its Discontents, p.40)